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Astronomia (437)

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! EN_01151355_0052 SCI
Brain anatomy. Artwork of a transverse section through a brain. At centre is the corpus callosum (cream), a bundle of nerve fibres that links the two hemispheres of the brain. Either side of the corpus callosum are the lobes (oval) of the thalamus. The thalamus processes sensory input and relays it to higher parts of the brain. The cream structures to the left of the thalamus are the tails of the caudate nucleus, which, along with other structures, are responsible for voluntary movement.
! EN_01151355_0439 SCI
17th Century astronomers. Historical allegorical engraving of astronomers, from Oculus artificialis teledioptricus sive telescopium, by Johann Zahn, Germany, 1685. Extract from Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
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solar system illustration
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Solar System
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Digital Image of Earth and Moon in Space
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Satellite and Earth
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Computer Illustration
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Optical image of Mars with an illustration showing it's core, mantle and crust. Current studies say its core consists primarily of iron with about 14-17% sulfur, and is about 1480 km in radius. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but now appears to be inactive. The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km, while the maximum thickness is about 125 km. In comparison, Earth's crust, averages 40 km, and is only one third as thick as the crust of Mars.
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Optical image of Mars with an illustration showing it's core, mantle and crust. Current studies say its core consists primarily of iron with about 14-17% sulfur, and is about 1480 km in radius. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but now appears to be inactive. The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km, while the maximum thickness is about 125 km. In comparison, Earth's crust, averages 40 km, and is only one third as thick as the crust of Mars.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Jupiter; the fifth planet from the sun and the largest in the solar system. Jupiter has a rocky core and is surrounded by a dense metallic hydrogen layer, which extends outward to about 78 percent of the radius of the planet.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Jupiter; the fifth planet from the sun and the largest in the solar system. Jupiter has a rocky core and is surrounded by a dense metallic hydrogen layer, which extends outward to about 78 percent of the radius of the planet.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Mercury. Geologists estimate that Mercury's core occupies about 42% of its volume; in comparison, for Earth this proportion is 17%. Recent research suggests that Mercury has a molten core with a mantle of silicates, 500-700 km thick, surrounding it. Mercury's crust is believed to be 100-300 km thick based on data gathered from earth based observation, and the mariner 10 mission.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Mercury. Geologists estimate that Mercury's core occupies about 42% of its volume; in comparison, for Earth this proportion is 17%. Recent research suggests that Mercury has a molten core with a mantle of silicates, 500-700 km thick, surrounding it. Mercury's crust is believed to be 100-300 km thick based on data gathered from earth based observation, and the mariner 10 mission.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. It's core consists of rock and ice composed of iron, nickel and silicates. It's mantle is equivalent to 10 to 15 Earth masses and is rich in water, ammonia and methane. The crust atmosphere consists of hydrogen, helium and methane gas.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. It's core consists of rock and ice composed of iron, nickel and silicates. It's mantle is equivalent to 10 to 15 Earth masses and is rich in water, ammonia and methane. The crust atmosphere consists of hydrogen, helium and methane gas.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Pluto. Observations by the hubble space telescope suggest that the internal composition of Pluto consists of roughly 50 to 70 percent rock and 30 to 50 percent ice by mass. The diameter of the core is thought to be about 70% of Pluto's diameter. The overall color is believed to be a result of ultraviolet radiation from the distant Sun breaking up methane that is present on Pluto's surface, leaving behind a dark, molasses-colored, carbon-rich residue. Pluto is so small and distant that the task of resolving the surface is as challenging as trying to see the markings on a soccer ball 40 miles away.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Pluto. Observations by the hubble space telescope suggest that the internal composition of Pluto consists of roughly 50 to 70 percent rock and 30 to 50 percent ice by mass. The diameter of the core is thought to be about 70% of Pluto's diameter. The overall color is believed to be a result of ultraviolet radiation from the distant Sun breaking up methane that is present on Pluto's surface, leaving behind a dark, molasses-colored, carbon-rich residue. Pluto is so small and distant that the task of resolving the surface is as challenging as trying to see the markings on a soccer ball 40 miles away.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Saturn. There is no direct information about Saturn's internal structure, although, it is thought to have a similar interior to Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded mostly by hydrogen and helium. The rocky core is similar in composition to the Earth, but denser. Above the core there is thought to be a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, with a layer of liquid hydrogen and helium above that, and a gaseous atmosphere in the outermost 1000 km.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Saturn. There is no direct information about Saturn's internal structure, although, it is thought to have a similar interior to Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded mostly by hydrogen and helium. The rocky core is similar in composition to the Earth, but denser. Above the core there is thought to be a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, with a layer of liquid hydrogen and helium above that, and a gaseous atmosphere in the outermost 1000 km.
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Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Uranus. The standard model of Uranus's structure is that it consists of three layers: a rocky core in the center, an icy mantle in the middle and an outer gaseous hydrogen/helium envelope. The rocky core of Uranus is relatively small, with a mass of 0.55 Earth masses and a radius less than 20 percent of Uranus's; the mantle is about 13.4 Earth masses, and comprises the bulk of the planet; the upper atmosphere weighs only that of 0.5 Earth masses and extends for the last 20 percent of Uranus's radius.

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